what is turnover in business

What is Turnover in Business ? | 3 Main Calculation Formula with Examples

What is Turnover in Business and How to Calculate Business Turnover

What is Turnover in Business? 

Turnover in business means how over and over again things like goods, money, or employees change within a company over a certain time.

How quickly products are sold from a store shelf and how efficiently money is used to make more money or how often people come and go from a job.

Good command over turnover helps businesses run smoother because it shows where improvements can be made, like managing stock better, using money intelligently or keeping employees happy.

Knowing about turnover helps businesses make smarter decisions and improve how they work.

A timely checking of turnover statistics help the companies to spot problems, make changes, grow stronger and leads the business to success and stay fast paced.

1st main type of turnover in continuation to What is Turnover in Business:

Inventory Turnover

Inventory turnover is like checking how fast a store sells its products. It tells us how well a company manages its inventory to make money.

To figure it out, we use a simple formula:

Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) / Average Inventory


You divide the total cost of goods sold (all the expenses related to making or buying the items being sold) by the average amount of inventory the company has during a certain time.

A higher inventory turnover ratio means the company is selling its goods quickly, which is usually a good thing.

It shows that the company is managing its resources well and is quick to respond to what customers want.

Basically, a higher ratio means the company is using its inventory efficiently, which can lead to more profits and smoother operations.

For example, a clothing company called Company ABC Textiles. Last year, they sold clothing worth Rs. 50,000/-.

To figure out how well they managed their inventory, we need to find their inventory turnover.

At the start of the year, they had Rs. 20,000/- worth of clothing in stock.

At the end of the year, they had Rs. 6,000/- left. To get the average inventory, we add these two amounts and divide by 2.

Average Inventory = (Rs. 20,000 + Rs. 6,000) / 2 = Rs. 13,000/-

Now, let’s use these numbers in our formula:

Inventory Turnover = Rs. 50,000 / Rs. 13,000 = 3.85

So, Company ABC Textile’s inventory turnover is about 3.85 times per year. This means they sold and replaced their entire stock roughly 3.85 times in a year.

 A higher turnover usually means they manage their inventory well and are efficient in their operations.

2nd main type of turnover in continuation to What is Turnover in Business

Asset Turnover

Asset turnover is a key measure that assesses how efficiently a company uses its assets to generate revenue.

Looking at how well the company uses its resources such as equipment or property to make money.

To figure out asset turnover, we use a simple formula:

Asset Turnover = Total Revenue / Average Total Assets


We divide the total revenue the company earns by the average total value of its assets. This gives us a ratio that shows how much revenue the company makes for every rupee invested in assets.

If the asset turnover ratio is higher, it generally a good sign. It means the company is using its resources effectively and generating more revenue with less investment in assets.

This indicates improved productivity and efficiency, which is great for the company’s overall performance.

For example, a small scale company called “ABC Zone” that sells mobile accessories. Last year, ABC Zone made total revenue of Rs. 10,000/- from selling its products.

Now, let’s talk about their assets. At the start of the year, ABC Zone had assets (like equipment, furniture, etc.) worth Rs. 40,000/-.

By the end of the year, their assets had grown to Rs. 60,000/-.

To assess how effectively ABC Zone is using its assets to generate revenue.

We can use the asset turnover formula.

Asset Turnover = Total Revenue / Average Total Assets

Using our numbers in formula:

Average Total Assets = (Rs. 40,000 + Rs. 60,000) / 2 = Rs. 50,000

Asset Turnover = Rs. 10,000 / Rs. 50,000 = 0.2

So, for every rupee ABC Zone invested in assets, they made about Rs. 0.20/- in revenue over the year.

A higher asset turnover ratio usually suggests better utilization of assets to generate revenue.

In this case, a ratio of 0.2 indicates that ABC Zone might need to improve its asset utilization to increase revenue generation efficiency.

3rd main type of turnover in continuation to What is Turnover in Business

Employee Turnover

Employee turnover rate is a measure that tells us how often employees leave and join a company. It gives us an idea of the company’s culture and how well it is led.

To find this rate, we use a simple formula:

Employee Turnover Rate = (Number of Employees Who Left / Average Number of Employees) × 100

In easy words, we divide the number of employees who have left the company by the average number of employees, and then we multiply it by 100 to get a turnover percentage.

A lower turnover rate means more employees are sticking around, which is a sign of a stable and happy workplace. When employees stay, it creates a better environment for growth and new ideas. So, having a low turnover rate is usually a good thing for a company.


Suppose a small company called ABC TechSolutions. Last year, they had 50 employees on average. During that time, 10 employees left the company, and new hires replaced them.

To find the turnover rate, we divide the number of employees who have left 10 by the average number of employees 50 and then we multiply it by 100 to get a percentage.

So, the turnover rate for ABC TechSolutions last year, lets us put numbers in formula:

Employee Turnover Rate = (Number of Employees Who Left / Average Number of Employees) × 100

Employee Turnover Rate = (10/50) × 100 = 20%

This means that 20% of ABC TechSolutions workforce left last year. It’s a way to see how many employees leave compared to how many usually work there.

Influencing Factors and Resulting Effects in context to what is Turnover in Business:

Factors Influencing Turnover in context to What is Turnover in Business

  1. Economic Factors:

Changes in the economy can have a big impact on how many employees leave or join a company.

When the economy is not doing well, people might spend less money which could lead to job cuts and more people leaving their jobs.

But when the economy is good, companies might hire more people to keep up with demand which means more turnover as new hires join.

To handle these ups and downs, companies need to be flexible and ready to adjust their plans according to what is happening in the economy.

Keeping an eye on things and being able to change course when needed, companies can reduce the risk of losing too many employees and take advantage of opportunities for growth.

2. Management Models

Leadership efficacy and management practices directly influence turnover dynamics.

Invest in strong management systems and promote a culture of transparency and accountability to moderate turnover risks and improves organizational elasticity.

3. Market Pressures

Technological advancements and competitive pressures reshape market setting, necessitating alert responses and proactive strategies.

Finding new ideas and keeping up with market trends can make a company stay competitive and grow steadily.

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Strategies in context to What is Turnover in Business

  1. Strategic Inventory Management:

Adopting lean principles and using predictive analytics, companies improve how they manage their inventory. This helps them reduce waste and better respond to changes in demand.

2. Cultivating Human Capital:

Companies build a supportive and inclusive environment to help their employees grow continuously. This reduces employee turnover and support teamwork whish in result leads to better creativity and innovation.

3. Continuous Improvement:

Businesses focus on always getting better. They do this by listening to feedback and looking at how well they are doing. This helps them make changes to how they work, which leads to growth.

One of the most important things for any businessperson is to know what is turnover in business, its types and how to calculate business turnover. Whether it is related to employees, inventory, or assets, keeping track of turnover helps companies make smarter decisions and stay competitive.

A good command over calculating turnover and using effective strategies like transparency, accountability, and continuous improvement, businesses can create a positive work environment and reduce turnover.

Investing in employee development and efficient inventory management can boost overall performance.

Following these principles and always looking for ways to improve, businesses can thrive in today’s ever changing market.

FAQs for What is Turnover in Business
  1. How does turnover impact a company’s performance?

Answer. Turnover can have a significant impact on how well a company performs. When turnover rates are high, it can disrupt work, lower team morale, and increase the costs of hiring new employees. On the other hand, when turnover rates are low, it usually means that the company has a stable and happy workforce, which can lead to better performance overall.

2. What are some common reasons why employees leave their jobs?

Answer: There are many reasons why employees might decide to leave their jobs. These could include things like not feeling valued or appreciated, not having opportunities for career growth, or feeling like they are not being paid enough. Sometimes external factors like changes in the economy or industry trends can also play a role. Finding out the reason that why employees leave? Can help companies make changes to keep their employees happy and motivated.

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